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Global warming will have serious consequences for human health, biodiversity, ecosystems and the goods and services they provide, as well as for many social and economic sectors, including agriculture, tourism, and energy production.

More frequent high-temperature extremes, such as hot days and nights and heat waves, as observed and projected, will affect human health. This could lead to an increase in the cases of temperature-related mortality, as already experienced in recent heat events. Especially vulnerable sectors of the population, such as the elderly and infants, will be affected the most.

Warming is affecting the distribution and abundance of many plant and animal species (insects, birds), which already show problems in adapting to the changing climate. Mountain areas are particularly affected. The behaviour and phenology of animal and plant species is also changing: this could lead to greater numbers of pests, invasive species, and the incidence of certain human diseases, while the yields and the viability of agriculture and livestock, or the capacity of ecosystems to provide key services and goods (such as water reservoirs, natural erosion control) could be diminished.

Warmer temperatures increase the risk of desertification in southern parts of Europe, and they also cause a greater risk of droughts.

Temperature extremes will therefore affect sectors such as agriculture, tourism and energy production. Cities can face new challenges for supply of water and other basic resources.

Low-temperature extremes (cold spells, frosty days) could become less frequent in Europe, and milder winter temperatures might also reduce winter deaths. However, global warming affects the predictability of events and therefore our response capacity.

Climate change is expected to affect water availability and increase water scarcity throughout Europe. Changes have been observed in river flows, with reductions in southern and eastern Europe, and increases or seasonal changes in other regions.

With fresh water originating mostly in mountain areas (e.g. 40% of Europe’s water comes from the Alps), changes in the snow and glacier dynamics and in precipitation patterns may lead to water shortages across Europe. These diminishing water supplies will also have a negative impact on hydroelectric power, which is the principal energy source for large areas of Europe.

Water scarcity, together with other climate change effects such as droughts, will have a direct impact on citizens, especially in highly urbanised or densely populated areas and the coast. Changes in water availability and quality will affect critical EU sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry, energy, and transport. Environmental effects are expected to affect biodiversity, water quality, and aggravate the risk of forest fires, soil degradation and desertification.

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by Kathleen Millar

Peer Reviewed Open Access

“I found a job!” Rose snapped open a can of beer and quickly reached for my glass to catch the foam that poured down its sides. It was a quiet Sunday afternoon in Jardim Gramacho, the sprawling neighborhood at the base of Rio de Janeiro’s garbage dump. Rose and I lounged on overturned wooden crates outside her house, in a yard that was brown and barren except for a few scattered plastic bottles and tin cans. I first met Rose in 2008 while conducting research on the life projects of the roughly two-thousand laboring poor, known as catadores, who collect and sell recyclables on Rio’s dump for a living. Her husband, Carlos, often helped me heave my burlap sacks of wet cardboard onto the back of a buyer’s flatbed truck, and the two of them occasionally hung out at the bar in front of my house. Like other catadores, Rose had insisted many times that she would leave the garbage if she could: “The dump is pure suffering.” “In the garbage, there is no future.” Seu Marcão, a rather eccentric catador who had worked on the dump for over twenty years, would spontaneously shout over the clamor of unloading trucks, “Pay to enter and pray to leave!” an expression taken from the Portuguese-translated title of the horror film, The Funhouse. These were the common refrains of catadores.

Rose’s new job, however, meant more than an exit from the garbage dump. For the first time in her life, she had acquired employment with a signed worker ID ( carteira assinada ), a document guaranteeing a minimum wage, benefits, and the recognition of a regularly employed worker in Brazil. She told me that she would receive the equivalent of two monthly minimum-wages—as much if not more than she was presently making on the dump. She would be cleaning the house of a couple who lived a relatively short twenty-minute bus-ride away, and she was due to start that Monday. After Rose shared the good news, I lifted my glass to propose a toast to her new work. No, not just work ( trabalho ), she corrected me—this was a job ( emprego ).

I was therefore surprised when, after a few weeks, I asked Rose how she was finding her new job and she replied with a brush of her hand, “Oh, I quit.” Rose’s employer insisted that she stay at work until seven o’clock in the evening even though she easily finished all of her cleaning tasks by two in the afternoon. The requirement to remain at work, while not working, struck Rose as absurd. Her three children would already be dismissed from school and she would rather be home with them.

A few days later I saw Rose back on the dump. She waved to me from across a pile of recently unloaded waste—balancing a barrel of plastics on her right shoulder as she carefully stepped through mud that oozed puddles from the drizzling rain.

I have been taking the B-12 for about four months and still do not feel any more energy. I am not sure how long it takes.


HI Julee and Julie, The B12 and zap is a strange thing. It normally needs quite high levels of VB12 to get it, which you normally get from shots, but you can also get from transdermOil VB12. You will need adenosylcobalamin or OHCbl preferably. In addition, you also need to be having at least RDA amounts of B1, B2, B3 and B5, as these are all used in the energy (Krebb’s, TCA, Citric acid cycle). If these are low the energy cycle can’t turn. Another alternative is low thyroxin levels, which is very common in women as they get older. If you suffer from hyopthyroidism, many of the symptoms are similar to VB12 deficiency. Also up to 20% of people who are hypothyroidic are also VB12 deficient.


Hi Greg, one day before 2 and a half months i woke up and i started having riniging ears,depression,upset stomach, mbrain fog and memory problems including shortage of breath and lack of energy.I went to the doctor did cbc and had vitamin b12 low as 186 and doctor gave me jamieson 1000 mcg sublinguial ,i used for 2 months had a little difference but my memory got worst and had brain fog including blurred vision.I switched to ola loa hydroxycobalamin and magnesium from natural health and foods and no difference 2 weeks.I dont know what to do as its killing my social life coudnt do anything as i have also skipped my exams because of poor memory and brain fog.I took one injection methylcobalamin 5000 mcg from a naturopath a week ago but didnt felt anything instead my memory and brain fog is becoming worst and i also have pain in my legs.Now i have been to my school’s health doctor and she asked me to do tests for b12 including glucose,potassium,HbA1C,TSH,creatinine,uric acid,sodium,chloride,ALT vit B12 and ferritin.She said if its only b12 she will start injections but she wants to check the others as well to make sure if no other vitamin deficiency.I am wondering if one injection didnt gave me any difference which form of injection should i take or any other suggestion as it is killing education and social life both.


Hi sgujar, apart from you very low B12 levels measured in serum, one extra way you can determine that you are functionally vitamin B12 deficient is to have your homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels tested. If homocysteine is high you need methyl, if MMA is high you need adenosylcobalamin. There is one caveat to this, and if you have MTHFR or similar mutations, you may need methyl but many MTHFR individuals don’t seem to make a lot of homocysteine, as they “just can’t”. One shot of methyl won’t necessarily boost your energy levels. You need adenosyl to fire up your mitochondria.


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